School discipline can be categorized as exclusionary, which removes students from their normal learning setting (e.g., out-of-school suspension), or inclusionary, which do not (e.g., after-school detention).

The link between exclusionary discipline and negative outcomes for students, particularly racial/ethnic minority students and students with disabilities, has raised questions among policymakers, parents, and other stakeholders about equity in school punishment and whether alternatives might be employed in response to student offenses.

This guide is designed to help school and district leaders use data to better inform their use of disciplinary actions.

Visit the Analyzing Student-Level Disciplinary Data: A Guide for Districts resource page to learn more and download your copy.