Skip to main content

Analyzing Student-Level Disciplinary Data: A Guide for Districts

By Anthony Petrosino, Trevor Fronius, Cailean Cooke, Daniel J. Losen, Herbert M. Turner

With Urban School Improvement Alliance


Discipline in schools can be categorized as exclusionary actions, which remove students from their normal learning setting (e.g., out-of-school suspension), or inclusionary actions, which do not (e.g., after-school detention).

The relationship of exclusionary discipline to negative outcomes for students, particularly racial/ethnic minority students and students with disabilities, has raised questions among policymakers, parents, and other stakeholders about equity in school punishment and whether alternatives may be employed in response to student offenses.

This guide is designed to help school and district leaders use data to better inform their use of disciplinary actions.

The guide can help administrators:

  • Determine whether disciplinary actions are disproportionately applied to some student subgroups
  • Determine whether differences exist in student academic outcomes across the types of disciplinary actions that students receive
  • Design and carry out analyses
  • Engage in conversations with external researchers who are studying disciplinary data

Resource Details

Product Information

Copyright: 2017
Format: PDF
Pages: 43
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences